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Welcome to Consultox, Limited, a toxicology consulting firm established in 1985. Dr. Richard A. Parent, Principal and Consulting Toxicologist, is a doubly Board Certified Toxicologist with a firm foundation in chemistry and over 30 years of practice in the field of Toxicology. Consultox is a full service toxicology consulting firm providing support to litigants as an Expert Witness in Toxicology and to industry as an Independent Toxicology Consultant for projects involving product safety, drug impurities, risk assessment, and various agency product registration processes.

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Expert Witness Toxicologist

Richard A. Parent, PhD, DABT, FATS, RAC, ERT, is certified by the American Board of Toxicology and the Academy of Toxicological Sciences as well as the Regulatory Affairs Certification Board. He is a recognized Expert in Toxicology in France and the European Community. Dr. Parent has over 35 years of experience in Toxicology and Chemistry and has directed two toxicology laboratories, the combination of such affords him insights that go far beyond his fields of dual expertise. Read More

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Known Health Risks

After a review of the world's literature on the health effects of vaping on adolescents and adults, it is difficult not to conclude that there is insufficient data available to provide any significant evidence as to the long-term health effects of vaping since no long-term human epidemiological studies have been reported. Further complicating the situation is the fact that there are numerous products being used with many different flavorants, and the quality control of these products is virtually non-existent. There are, however, many red flags.

While E-cigarettes are made to deliver habit-forming nicotine to the user, there are a number of other components to the E-liquid that goes into the device including propylene glycol and glycerol which when volatilized produce the smoke that emanates from the smoker's lungs. Other components of the smoke include ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, methylglyoxal, acetyl propionyl, and acetoin. When vaporized in the E-cigarette apparatus, these materials have been shown to decompose forming formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, butyraldehyde, and diacetyl, the latter being the cause of "popcorn lung" among flavoring workers. Beyond that, exposure to formaldehyde is known to result in respiratory sensitization and can also result in cross-sensitization to other aldehydes, including those found in perfumes. Formaldehyde is found also in some building products and adhesives, leaving the smoker susceptible to many potential sources capable of exacerbating a respiratory asthma-type attack. Acrolein is another aldehyde that attacks and destroys respiratory tissue.

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Dr. Richard A. Parent has given testimony in courts in the United States and Canada nearly 30 times, and he has been deposed over 120 in support of both plaintiff and defense. Cases cover a wide range of subjects: dramshop, diacetyl (popcorn lung), wrongful death related to methadone and carbon monoxide, personal injury involving ozone, carbon monoxide, benzene, sulfur dioxide, chlorine, 1,4-dioxane, alcohol, arsenic, and others. Dr. Parent has lectured on the requirements for the establishment of causation and the structuring of expert reports. Many redacted reports are included on this website for review. Read More


Dr. Richard Parent has assisted clients in areas of product safety relating to toys, cosmetics, household products, pesticides, OTC drugs, art supplies, and food additives (GRAS).  He has worked with appropriate agencies to meet requirements for labeling and warnings as well as creating material safety data sheets (MSDS) for various industrial products.  He has been involved in assessing risk in occupational situations where potentially hazardous substances are involved and preparing submissions in support of food additives in accordance with the GRAS procedures.  Of particular interest is Dr. Parent’s area of specialization in Inhalation Toxicology and his significant contribution to the field through the publication of his book, “Comparative Biology of the Normal Lung”, a well respected source of normal parameters related to lungs of various animal species, including man.

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